Monday, April 13, 2015

“Ground nut cultivation is suitable to Thottiyapatty”-K.Devendran

Ground nut harvested in Thottiyapatty SG/OFI/SEVAI project.

“Ground nut cultivation is suitable to Thottiyapatty” was enlightened by K.Devendran, the coordinator of SG/OFI/SEVAI Project. The quality of life and livelihood areas are significantly improving in Thottiyapatty village with the hard work of the Villagers under SG/OFI/SEVAI Project. The farmers use the water for irrigation very economically as per the requirement without any wastage. Thus they are able to cultivate cereals, pulses, tubers and vegetables and also ground nuts. Now the ground nut harvest is in progress in Thottiyapatty cluster. Among the oilseed crops, groundnut has first place in India. SG/OFI/SEVAI project coordinator K.Devendran organized a training program for ground nut growers and enlightened the ground nut farmers and said, “Groundnut oil is primarily used in the manufacture of vegetable oil. Groundnut seed
Ground nut cultivation in Thottiyapatty cluster
contains about 45 per cent oil and 26 per cent protein. Groundnut kernel as a whole is highly digestible. It is, in the first place about as concentrated a food as money can buy, one gram for supplies 5.8 food calories. The biological value of groundnut protein is among the highest of the vegetable protein, and equals that of casein. Groundnuts are a good source of all B vitamins except B12. With regard to minerals, phosphorus, calcium and iron are present in significant amount. The kernels are consumed either roasted or fried and salted. The oilcake obtained after the extraction of the oil is a valuable organic manure and animal feed. It contains 7-8 per cent nitrogen, 1.5 per cent phosphorus and 1.5 per cent potash. It is a good rotation crop, it builds up the soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen through the root nodules and also an efficient cover crop for lands exposed to soil erosion. Groundnut is essentially a tropical plant. It requires a long and warm growing season. The most favourable climate conditions for groundnut are a well distributed rainfall at least 50 cm during growing season, abundance of sunshine and relatively warm temperatures. During ripening period it requires about a
uprooting ground nut plants from the field
month of warm and dry weather. Groundnut thrives best in well-drained sandy and sandy loam soils, as light soil helps in easy penetration of pegs and their development and also harvesting. Groundnut gives good yields in the soil with pH between 6.0-6.5.  Although groundnut is a deep-rooted crop but looking to it’s underground pod forming habit, deep ploughing should be avoided. One ploughing with soil turning plough followed by two harrowing would be sufficient to achieve a good surface tilt up to 12-18 cm depth. One summer cultivation will minimize weeds and insect-pests to a great extent in problem areas. Quality of seeds is of utmost importance for establishing the optimum plant stand. Pods for seed purposes should be stored unshelled in a cool, dry and ventilated place. For seed purposes, pods should be shelled by hand one week before sowing. Hand shelling ensures little damage to seeds. Pods shelled long before sowing time are liable to suffer from loss of viability and storage damages. Only bold seeds should be used for sowing. Just like the other legumes, groundnut meets the major part of nitrogen requirement through the nitrogen fixation. However, an application of 20-40 kg nitrogen per hectare as a starter dose is given to meet the nitrogen requirement of the crop in the initial stage in poor fertility soils.
Harvested Ground Nut
Being a rainy season crop, groundnut does not require irrigation. However, if dry spell occurs, irrigation may become necessary. One irrigation should be given at pod development stage. The field should be well drained. Normally, one or two hand hoeing and weeding should be done, depending upon soil type and extent of weed infestation. First hoeing should be done three weeks after sowing and the second, three weeks thereafter before commencement of flowering. Care should be taken that soil should not be distributed at pod formation stage. It is necessary to dig the pods at the right time for obtaining higher yields of pods and oil. Nut takes two months to attain full development. A fully mature pod will be difficult to split easily with finger pressure. This stage is achieved when vine begins to turn yellow and leaves start shedding. Harvesting should be done when good percentage of nuts is fully developed and fairly intact. In case of bunch type of groundnut, the plants are harvested by pulling. Harvesting of spreading type of groundnut is done by spade, local plough. Leave the harvested crop in small heaps for two three days for curing. After curing, collect the crop at one place and detach the pods by hand for separating the pods from the plants”. -Govin

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