Child care and family services
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Promoting Child & Family Well-Being. Promoting well-being involves understanding and addressing child, youth, and caregiver functioning in physical, behavioral, social, and areas. A focus on well-being should be integrated into all aspects of child welfare services.Family and Children, Family and Children's Services provides services to children who have been abused, neglected, or who are at risk of abuse or neglect. Child welfare services focus on child safety, child and family well-being, and permanent homes for children.Child protection is the protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect. Article 19 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the protection of children in and out of the home.Child protection is the protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect. Article 19 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the protection of children in and out of the home. Child protection systems are a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children a ‘child protection system’ as: the set of laws, policies, regulations and services needed across all social sectors – especially social welfare, education, health, security and justice – to support prevention and response to protection-related risks. These systems are part of social protection, and extend beyond it. At the level of prevention, their aim includes supporting and strengthening families to reduce social exclusion, and to lower the risk of separation, violence and exploitation. Responsibilities are often spread across government agencies, with services delivered by local authorities, non-State providers, and community groups, making coordination between sectors and levels, including routine referral systems, a necessary component of effective child protection systems.Due to economic reasons, especially in poor countries, children are forced to work in order to survive. Child labour often happens in difficult conditions, which are dangerous and impair the education of the future citizens and increase vulnerability to adults. It is hard to know exactly the age and number of children who work.
Endangerment and infanticideChild abuse:Most children who come to the attention of the child welfare system do so because of any of the following situations, which are often collectively termed child abuse. Abuse typically involves abuse of power, or exercising power for an unintended purpose.This includes willful neglect, knowingly not exercising a power for the purpose it was intended. This is why child abuse is defined as taking advantage of a position of trust having been invested with powers.
- Physical abuse, is physical assault or battery on the child. Whilst an assault has some adverse consequence that the victim did not agree to (the difference between surgery and stabbing) the victim agrees to the consequences of battery but the agreement is fraudulent in some way (e.g. unnecessary surgery under false pretences). Physical abuse also harassment, a physical presence intended to provoke fear.
- Child sexual abuse, is sexual assault or battery on the child. The vast majority of physical assaults are a reaction to a situation involving a specific victim. Sexual assault is predominantly perpetrator gratification against any suitable target. Sexual abuse covers the range of direct and indirect assaults (e.g. imagery) and the means of facilitation such as stalking and internet offences.
- Neglect, including failure to take adequate measures to safeguard a child from harm, and gross negligence in providing for a child's basic needs. Needs are the actions to be taken to protect and provide for the child. Safeguarding is the duty of a person given the powers of responsibility for the child to take the necessary measures to protect the child. If a child is physically or sexually abused then there is an (abusive) person responsible for the assault and a (negligent) person responsible for failing to protect from the assault. In some cases they may be the same.
- Psychological abuse, when meeting the child's needs by taking the necessary steps to protect and provide for the child the child's wishes and feelings must be considered when deciding on delivery of the provision that best serves the child's needs. Willfully failing to provide in accordance with the child's wishes and feelings, whilst it is in his/her best interests is emotional abuse or negligently is emotional neglect (negligent infliction of emotional distress).
Parental responsibilityThese defined parental responsibility as a 'function' duties to be met and powers that can be exercised to meet those duties. Child abuse and neglect is failure by a person with parental or any other protective responsibility to exercise the powers for the intended purpose, which is the benefit of the child. Actions typically include services aimed at supporting at-risk families so they can remain intact to safeguard and promote the welfare of the child, investigation of alleged child abuse and, if necessary, assuming parental responsibility.Services are provided by corporate bodies (or legal personalities). Parental responsibility gives parents and businesses that make provision to children and families equivalent legal entities. This includes public bodies and public bodies that regulate private bodies. This has been described as the partnership between state and family. A position held in a body corporate places a person in a position of trust. Child maltreatment is the neglectful or abusive exercise of power in a position of trust by either business in delivery of the products that best serve the child's needs for the parents to provide for the child or by the parents in providing for the child with those products.
Child protection systems listed the following categories of children needing help:
- Child victims of sexual abuse/exploitation
- Child victims of neglect or abuse
- Child victims of trafficking
- Children with disabilities
- Children in a situation of migration
- Unaccompanied children in a situation of migration
- Children without parental care/in alternative care
- Children in police custody or detention
- Street children
- Children of parents in prison or custody
- Children in judicial proceedings
- Children in or at risk of poverty
- Missing children (e.g. runaways, abducted children, unaccompanied children going missing)
- Children affected by custody disputes, including parental child abduction
- Children left behind (by parents who move to another EU country for work)
- Children belonging to minority ethnic groups, e.g. Roma
- Child victims of female genital mutilation or forced marriage
- Children who are not in compulsory education or training or working children below the legal age for work
- Child victims of bullying or cyber bullying
Non Formal EducationEducation plays an important role in development. Out of school programmes are important to provide adaptable learning opportunities and new skills and knowledge to a large percentage of people who are beyond the reach of formal education. Non-formal education began to gain popularity in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Today, non-formal education is seen as a concept of recurrent and lifelong learning. Non-formal education is popular among the adolescents specially the women as it increases women's participation in both private and public activities, i.e. in house hold decision making and as active citizens in the community affairs and national development. These literacy programmes have a dramatic impact on women's self-esteem because they unleash their potential in economic, social, cultural and political spheres. Non-formal education helps to ensures equal access to education, eradicate illiteracy among women and improve women's access to vocational training, science, technology and continuing education. It also encourages the development of non-discriminatory education and training. The effectiveness of such literacy and non-formal education programmes are strengthen by family, community and parental involvement.
AdvantagesNon-formal education is beneficial in a number of ways. There are activities that encourage young people to choose their own programme and projects that are important because they offer the youth the flexibility and freedom to explore their emerging interests. When the youth can choose the activities in which they can participate, they have opportunities to develop several skills like decision making skills. Non-formal learning has experiential learning activities that foster the development of skills and knowledge. This helps in building the confidence and abilities among the youth of today. It also helps in development of personal relationships not only among the youth but also among the adults. It helps in developing interpersonal skills among the young people as they learn to interact with peers outside the class and with adults in the community.
Any learning that occurs outside of these parameters is non-formal
Provides functional literacy and continuing education for adolescents who have not had a formal education or drop outs from schools or did not complete their primary education.
Provides functional and remedial education for the young people who did not complete their secondary education.
Provides to improve the basic knowledge and skills.
Provide in-service, on-the-job, vocational and professional training to different categories of workers and professionals to improve their skills.
Gives Adolescents of different parts of the country necessary aesthetic, cultural and civic education for public
· This removes informal learning from the equation and states all learning outside of formal learning is non-formal, equates informal with connotations of dress, language or behaviour that have no relation to learning, defines formal learning as taking place within a learning framework; within a classroom or learning institution, with a designated teacher or trainer.
· Non-formal education (NFE) is popular on a worldwide scale in both 'western' and 'developing countries'. Non-formal education can form a medium with formal and non-formal education, as non-formal education can mean any form of systematic learning conducted outside the formal setting.
· A report on vocational education, Making Learning Visible: the identification, assessment and recognition of non-formal learning, defines non-formal learning as semi structured, consisting of planned and explicit approaches to learning introduced into work organisations and elsewhere, not recognised within the formal education and training system.