|D R R homes constructed by SEVAI for Tsunami vicitms|
Choosing hazard-resistant housing designs and construction technologies play vital role for housing, design standards exist internationally and are readily available for various types of construction and disasters. Building codes are the most common regulatory instrument for ensuring safe construction methods, although they may not be promulgated or enforced. Disaster Risk Reduction considerations should be applied in site selection for both temporary and permanently relocated housing. While reconstruction should not occur in areas frequently affected by hazards, this is admittedly difficult where non vulnerable alternatives are scarce or land use regulations do not prevent it. Reconstruction guidelines should include the topic of site selection, as should the reconstruction communication program, so that both agencies and individuals are educated about the importance of these decisions. Post-Disaster Reconstruction needs to be adhered to the principles of communication with the affected community and the general public. Rehabilitate and retrofit housing, Rehabilitation deals with structural and nonstructural modification of buildings and infrastructure facilities. Since new zoning laws and updated design and construction codes usually can’t be applied retroactively, it is important that, to reduce the impact of disasters, the safety and structural integrity of existing buildings and infrastructure facilities is improved during the rehabilitation process. The training program should provide an understanding of how the hazards may affect the household and community and of recommended mitigation strategies for the specific affected region. Training Requirement in Reconstruction, describes some of the specific content in the training programs for the builders.
The location or structure of a building can greatly increase its vulnerability. Mitigation measures should address the specific causes of a building’s or infrastructure’s vulnerability. It is illogical to invest in expensive reinforcement of a structure resting on unstable soil. Removal, relocation, or elevation of in-place structures in highly hazardous areas, especially those built before building codes were established, is frequently the only option. A community must prioritize options based on the importance of a structure and its relative vulnerability. Post-disaster reconstruction begins with a series of decisions that must be made almost immediately. Despite their urgency, these decisions—and the manner in which they are implemented—will have long-term impacts that will change the lives of those affected by the disaster for years to come. Project managers engaged in post-disaster reconstruction programs make decisions about how to reconstruct housing and communities after natural disasters.
These guiding principles, some of the key concepts behind it, including participation, collaboration, sustainability, and risk reduction are important such as, A good reconstruction policy helps reactivate communities and empowers people to rebuild their housing, their lives, and their livelihoods, Reconstruction begins the day of the disaster, Community members should be partners in policy making and leaders of local implementation, Reconstruction policy and plans should be financially realistic but ambitious with respect to disaster risk reduction, Institutions matter and coordination among them improves outcomes, Reconstruction is an opportunity to plan for the future and to conserve the past, Relocation disrupts lives and should be kept to a minimum, Civil society and the private sector are important parts of the solution, Assessment and monitoring can improve reconstruction outcomes.-Govin