Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Red gram production is undertaken in Thottiyapatty watershed area.


Red gram cultivation in Thottiyapatty

Red gram production is undertaken in Thottiyapatty watershed area.SG/OFI-SEVAI Project in Thottiyapatty cluster cultivates Red Gram plantation. Red gram is commonly known as Tur and is the second important pulse. The ability of red gram to produce high economic yields under soil moisture deficit makes it an important crop in rain fed and dry land agriculture. Red gram, also known as pigeon pea, is an important pulse crop of India and is being cultivated in watershed region of Thottiyapatty cluster. Among total pulses, the red gram, a protein rich staple food. It contains 22 per cent of proteins which is almost three times as that of cereals and it supplies a major share of protein requirement of vegetarian population of the country. Its deep penetrating roots help in bringing nutrients from deeper layers of soil. With an effective rhizobium nodulation, it can fix up to 160 – 200 kg of nitrogen per ha per year. Falling of leaves before maturity ensures sufficient incorporation of nitrogen and other nutrients in the soil, which will be beneficial to the subsequent crop. Nitrogen fixing potential of red gram makes it an ideal intercrop or rotation crop in organic management. Red gram is often inter-cropped with sorghum, pearl millet, maize, sugarcane, cotton either during or in alternate season with main crop. Sowing of one/two lines of red gram after every 4-8 rows of cotton is widely practiced in cotton growing areas. Selection of varieties is being done carefully keeping in mind the water retention capacity of the soil, water availability and irrigation conditions. In organic farming stress is being given on the on-farm seed production and preservation. Drying of seeds in sun is very essential to obtain moisture level below 8%.As red gram is a deep rooted crop, it requires at least one deep tilling up 1 to 1.5 feet and one shallow tilling.  According to the biodynamic principle, sowing is preferred around new moon day for better seedling nutrition, as the moon is away from the earth and nutrients concentrate towards roots.  Weed management is required only up to 60 days of crop growth, as this is the time when weeds compete with the crop for nutrients. First weeding (hoeing) is to be done at 20-25 days, while second hoeing is done at 50-60 days after sowing. Use of green manure crops is an ideal preposition for soil enrichment.
Processed Red gram packaged in Thottiyapatty
Red Gram requires 35-40 cm water, during its entire growth period. Optimum moisture is necessary during (a) budding (b) flowering and (c) pod formation stages. As red gram is a rainfed crop grown in assured rainfall areas, usually it does not require any irrigation. Harvesting is preferred around new moon, in dark night day after crop matures. When most of the leaves are shed and 80% pods turned brown, is the best time for harvest.15-20 quintal/ ha as rain fed intercrop is obtained. Seeds are rich source of protein and hence become an indispensible part of Indian vegetarian meal. Red gram can withstand high temperatures. It can withstand up to 35o to 40o C provided soil moisture is adequate. It can be grown under variable soil moisture conditions, with rainfall ranging from 60cm to 140cm. However, higher yields can be realized with irrigation particularly during critical stages including flowering and pod filling. Crop duration varies from 120-150 days depending on the varieties and area of cultivation.
Tur production is picking up in some of the countries owing to their suitable climatic conditions and global demand. -Govin

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